What are Reference Electrodes?

Reference Electrode History

Electrochemistry is the study of chemical reactions, which take place at the interface of an electrode, usually a solid metal  or a semiconductor, and an ionic conductor, the electrolyte. These reactions involve electric charges moving between the electrodes and the electrolyte (or ionic species in a solution). Thus electrochemistry deals with the interaction between electrical energy and chemical change.

When a chemical reaction is caused by an externally supplied current, as in electrolysis, or if an electrical current is produced by a spontaneous chemical reaction as in a battery, it is called an electrochemical reaction.  Chemical reactions, where electrons are transferred directly between molecules and/or atoms, are called oxidation-reduction or (redox) reactions. In general, electrochemistry describes the overall reactions when individual redox reactions are separate but connected by an external electric circuit and an intervening electrolyte.

Reference Electrode Body Types